Maret 7, 2009 at 5:14 pm (Tidak terkategori)

1. importance to develop an information system.

1. There is troubleshoots in the old system, the information from the system must continue to be developed. Example troubleshoots existing in the system

the information is old deceits that is not safe with the property company, and the truth of the data less well guaranted,

error does not accidentally cause the truth data is not guaranted, that is not operating efficiently, and not the choice of policy

2. Organizational growth, growth of the organization here who need the information more quickly, more data volume increases, changes

accounting principles bew. Caused by this change, then the old system is not effective anymore, so there must be the development of the system.

The old system that needs to be repaired or replaced because
several things:
1. The existence of problems (problems) that arise in the old system. The problems that arise can be:
– The old system irregularity
– Irregularity in the old system caused the old system can not operate in accordance with the expected.
– The growth of the organization
– Need more information on area, volume of data increasing, changes in accounting principles that should cause a new disusunnya

The new system, because the old system is not effective anymore and can not meet all the needs of more information is needed in management.

2. To seize opportunities.
In a tight market competition, efficiency, speed of information or time is very successful, or not to determine strategies and

plans that have been developed to achieve opportunity, opportunity and market opportunities, so that information technology should be used to

improve the provision of information to support decision-making processes undertaken by management.

3. There is an instruction from the leadership or government regulation
Preparation of the new system can also occur because of instruksiinstruksi from the top leadership or from outside organizations, such as

such as government regulations

In general the goal of developing information systems is
• There is a problem (problems)
• System Growth irregularity in the Organization
• To Reaching opportunities (opportunities)
• The instructions (directives)
2. the purpose of developing information systems

With the new system is expected to increase in going:
1. Performance, which can be measured from the throughput and response time.
Throughput: the number of jobs that can be done at a certain time
Response time: The average time between two pending transactions.
2. Quality of information presented
3. Advantage (lower costs). Related to the amount of resources used
4. Control (control)
5. Efficiency
6. Services
The general purpose of the development of information system are:
– Solve problems
– Reaching opportunities
– Meets the instructions provided

3.the organization’s expectations after implementing an information system

in this case aims to improve the performance of the company to become better and more forward from the previous. at any time the data will be updated

to become better than before.
4. Principles of the system:

1. Management system is developed.
2. System developed large capital investment.
3. System developed for the needs of the educated.
4. Stage of the work and tasks that must be made in the implementation of the development of the system (System Development Life Cycle).
5. System development process can not massage.
6. Do not be afraid to cancel the project.
7. The existence of documentation to guide in the development of the system.

5. system development life cycle model

System Development Life Cycle can be defined as a series of activities carried out by professionals and users of information system

to develop and implement information systems.
Waterfall model


Waterfall model explanation:

1. Needs, the requirements in this process is a system analysis process does not need to collect from customers and / or top management of both areas

aspects of the business strategy, the system and the application or desired.
2. Design, at this stage we do not process analysis system, features that require, should be made of the application is also good for applications. Besides

that, here we also plan to start making the design of the system, such as the delegation, data structures, architecture, and because.
3. Implementation, the implementation process has continued from where we start the implementation of the design are made to be a program code read by the


4. Verification, the verification process here, as the process of testing the system and / or application that is made. This process focuses on the logic

from the internal application that is made, as sure to check that the line coding. Besides, here we also have a test against

process of the possibility of system errors are made.
5. Maintenance, the maintenance process here will be repairs and maintenance of the system are made. Repair process is done here and

when the application or system that is made after the error to the customer, so it must need improvements to the system and processes

caused by or against the development of an OS so that applications needing to update.
Iteratif Model


Iteratif model description:

Model Iteratif waterfall here with the same model, the same process found here, such as needs, design, implementation, and testing (verification).
1. Planning early, early into the planning process and / or ideas to create an initial system.
2. Planning, planning here will think that a mature system that is made of.
3. Needs, the same as in the process needs waterfall model, system analysis here does not need to collect from customers and the process or on the

management of the system and the application or desired.
4. Analysis and design, in this stage we do not process analysis system, which requires all the features, from applications that must also be made for both

application. In addition, here we also plan to start making the design of the system, such as the delegation, data structures, architecture,

and because.
5. Implementation, the implementation process has continued from where we start the implementation of the design are made to be a program code read by the


6. Deployment, the Deployment purpose here has been the distribution process to the system are made, in the sense of distributing the system before hand

to the community before the test so that we know our system deficit.
7. Testing, testing process here we have a test and the system or application that is made. This process focuses on the logic

from the internal application that is made, ensure that each line coding check. Besides, here we also have a test against

process of the possibility of system errors are made.
8. Evaluation, evaluation process will improve the process here, the care and renewal of the system are made. Repair process is done here

and when the application or system that is made after the error to the customer, so that the process needs to be improvements to the system. Process

maintenance and updates made to development caused by the OS so that an application must be repaired again to update. Deep

reform process here will return to the process of planning, data collection (needs), systems analysis and design, implementation, Deployment,

testing and return for evaluation. if there is more development, then this cycle will be repeated again.
Spiral model



Spiral model of explanation:

Spiral model is divided into 4 task areas, namely:

1. Defining the purpose, in this process we will determine what will be the system, either from the output of the system.
2. Identify and risk, here we make the process of identification, planning and analyzing the risk may occur. In the process of

identification and planning, we must set before hand power source, the accuracy of the time, and other information related to the system

project we will create. While in the process of risk analysis here we do the analysis on the risks that might occur, between

management or technical.
3. Development and testing, in the process of development and testing we do is process engineering, construction and testing of

system are made. In the process of engineering and construction, we make the process of coding to create applications. Meanwhile, in the test, we perform

test against the system or application that we have created.
4. Plan next iteration, here we do plan the next iteration process and the evaluation or in the case of requests from customers for

changes to the system or application.
In this spiral model, this revolutionary process began, the team engineer surround system moving clockwise spiral from the

kernel. Spiral track the first round of development to produce products from the specification. Spiral rotation can be used to further develop

prototype, and develop a progressive version of the system will increase. Each track is passed to the planning area in the

project plan.

6. system development approach

There are several approaches to develop the system, namely
– Classical Approach,
– Structured approach,
– From The Bottom To Top,
– Approach from the Top to bottom.

Classical approach

Classical approach (classical approach) is also called the traditional approach (traditional approach) or Conventional approach (conventional

approach). Classical Approach methodology to develop the system by following the stages in the System Life Cycle. This approach emphasizes that

development will be successful when you follow the stages in the System Life Cycle. The problems that can arise in the approach

Classic is as follows:

1. Software development will be difficult
    Less classical approach to provide tools and techniques in developing the system and as a result of this process of software development

    does not become effective and difficult to be done by programmers. Case with other approaches that provide structured tools such as diagrams

flow data (data flow diagram), the dictionary data (data dictionary), the decision table (decision table). IPO diagram, chart structured (structured chart)

and others that allow the development of more effective software-based tools and techniques are

2. Treatment or maintenance system will be expensive
    High cost of treatment in the classical approach the system is because the documentation system developed less complete and less structured.

This documentation is the result of tools and techniques used. Because the classical approach is less supported by tools and

techniques, the documentation to be incomplete and even less clear, but the structure, so that at the time of maintenance system

3. Possible errors of the system does not provide the classical approach to the way the system analyst to perform testing system, so the possibility

    kesalahankesalahan system will become greater.

4. The success of the system less secure emphasis from classical approach is the work of personnel, personnel systems developer, not on the

system, but now we realize that the support and understanding of the system against the system under development is of vital
for successful system development project at the end.

Start early in 1970 appeared a new approach called structured approach. This approach is basically to try
system to provide analysts with the tools and techniques to develop the system in addition to the fixed idea of the system life cycle.

Structured approach (Structured Approach) has a structured approach to the equipment (tools) and teknikteknik needed in the development

system, so that the final results of the system will be developed in a system with well defined structure and clear. Some of the methodology

development of a structured system has been introduced in both bukubuku, as well as by companies consultants systems developers.
This methodology introduces the use of tools and techniques to develop a structured system.
The concept of structured system development is not a new concept. Assembly techniques in the manufacturing and design of circuits for electronic equipment

are two examples of this new concept that is used in many industries. This concept is still relatively new to use in developing a system

information system to produce products that satisfy users. Through this structured approach, permasalahanpermasalahan in a complex organization

can be solved and the results from the system will be easy to maintain, flexible, more satisfied users, have any documentation of good, right on

time, according to the budget cost, can improve productivity and quality will be better (error free).
– From Bottom To Top (Bottom-up Approach)
This approach starts from the bottom level of the organization, the operational level where the transaction is done. This approach starts from the


needs to handle the transaction and up to formulate the top-level information based on the needs of the transaction
it. This approach, characteristics of the classical approach. Approach from bottom to top when it is used in the analysis stage, the system is also called

term data analysis, because the pressure is to be data to be processed first, the information generated will follow the data.

– Approach from the Top to bottom (Top-down Approach)
Approach from the Top to bottom (Top-down Approach) starting from the top level organization, the level of planning strategies. This approach begins with

defining the goals and policies of the organization. The next step of this approach is the analysis of information needs. After

specified information needs, the process came down to the processing of transactions, namely the determination of output, input, databases, prosedurprosedur

operation and control.

This approach is also the characteristics structured approach. Top-down approach used at the stage when the system analyst is also the term

decision analysis, because the pressure is to be the information necessary for decision making by management first, then data

that need to be processed is defined to follow the required information.

– The piece (piecemeal approach)
Which emphasizes the development of an activity / application without considering the particular position in the information system or not
attention to the global organization’s goals (notice of targets, or that the application only).

– System approach (systems approach)
Given the information system as one integrated entity for their respective activities and emphasizes the application of the target organization


– A comprehensive system (total-system approach)
The simultaneous development of the system as a whole, which will be difficult to develop (classical characteristics).

– The modular (modular approach)
The split with the complex system into a simple module, so the system more easily understood and developed, on time, easy

kept (most structured)

– Jump away (great loop approach)
Approaches that implement comprehensive changes simultaneously using advanced technology, that contain a high risk,
too expensive, difficult to develop because it is too complex.

– Developing approaches (evolutionary approach)
Approaches that apply only to advanced technology that requires only aplikasiaplikasi and continue to be developed for the next period

needs and existing technology.
6. System Development Methodology

Unitary method is a methodology, procedures, working concepts, rules and postulates that are used by a science, art or discipline

another. Method is a way, technique is not specific to systemic. System development methodology means the methods, procedures, working concepts, rules

and postulates that will be used to develop information systems. Algorithm is a sequence of procedures for deciding the problem.
Based on the classification methodology that can be grouped into three, namely:

7. classification methodology development

1. Functional decomposition methodology.
Emphasizeds this methodology in the solution of the system into smaller subsystems, so the more easily understood, designed and implemented. Own

  This methodology, namely:

– HIPO (Hierarchy plus Input-Output-Proccess)
– Stepwise refinement (SR), or iterative refinement Stepwise (isr)
– Information-hidding

2. Data-oriented methodologies.
This methodology will emphasize on the characteristics of the data to be processed. This methodology can be grouped into two classes, namely:

a. Data flow-oriented methodology.
This methodology is based on the solution of the system intoes module based on the type of data elements and logic modules behavior insides system. Included in

   This methodology, namely:
– SADT (Structured Analysis and Design Techniques)
– Composite design
– Structured Systems Analysis and Design (SSAD)

b. Methodology-oriented data structure.
This methodology emphasizeds structure of the input and output in the system. Belonging to this methodology, namely:
– JSD (Jakson’s System Development)
– W / O (Winner / Orr)

3. Determine the methodology.
This methodology is usually provided by the manufacturer of the software. Included in this methodology, namely:

– ISDOS (Information Systems Design and Optimization System)
– SDM/70
– Spectrum
– SRES and Srem
– Chapin’s approach
– DBo

8. In System Development Tools

Tools used in methodologies that are usually shaped picture or diagram, or graph. Graph form a system development tools,


– HIPO diagram
– Data flow diagram
– Structured chart
– SADT diagram
– Warnier / Orr
In addition to the graphic form tools, find some instruments have been established as general graphs Chart. Chart can be classified as follows:

1. Chart to describe the activity (activity charting).
System flowchart
Program flowchart that can be:
– Program logic flowchart
– Look up a computer program flowchart
– Paperwork or flowchart form flowchart
– Database relationship flowchart

Process flowchart
– Gantt chart

2. Layout charting

3. Staff relatioanship charting
– Work distribution chart
– Organization chart
9. In Engineering Development System

Techniques that can be used in the development of the system, namely:

1. Engineering project management,
the CPM (Critical Path Method) and pert (program evaluation and review technique). This technique is used for scheduling the project.
2. Fact finding techniques,
the techniques that can be used to collect data and find the facts that exist in the system studied, namely:
– Interview
– Observation
– Questionnaire
– Sample collected

3. Cost-effectiveness analysis or cost benefit analysis

4. Techniques for running meetings

5. Technical inspection / walkthrough.

10. System Analysis And Programmer

Analysis system is one that analyzes the system and learn to identify the problem and determine the needs of the user system.

Programmer who is writing the code for the program based on the particular application has been planned to get up that conducted by system  analyst.
Functions and tasks of the analyst or a system as a mediator or the relationship between the user with the system programmer. Systems analyst must be aware  correct knowledge about the two different technologies for the computer can communicate with the programmer and the knowledge of the applications developed  so that they can communicate with the user’s system.

That knowledge needs Skill System Analyst
11. Find some eruditions knowledgeable and skills that must have system analyst, namely:
1. Knowledge and skills of data processing techniques, computer technology and computer programming.
– `Technical skills should have the skills in using tools and techniques for developing software applications with expertise in using computers.
– Technical knowledge must include knowledge about the hardware, technology, data communications, computer language, os, utilities, and  another.

2. Knowledge about business in general.
This knowledge will want a system analyst for the system can communicate with the user.

3. Knowledge of quantitative methods.
System analyst uses many methods of quantitative models in building applications, such as dynamic programs, regresion, network, decision tree,  Trends, and others such as simulation.

4. Trouble-shooting skills.
Systems analyst must have the ability to place troubleshoots complex faced by the business, divide the problem into parts,  must be analyzed and then can go back into the system that can overcome troubleshoots.

5. Communication skills to provide staff.
Systems analyst must have the ability to conduct communications through the tongue or the article. This is a necessary skill in the interview,  presentations,  meetings and reports maker.

6. Provide skills to build staff connections.
Human factor is important insides system and different human characters with each other, so the need to build expertise connection to provide staff.


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